|Publication Type:||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication:||2008|
|Authors:||A. - C. Scheen, Lindqvist, C., Fossdal, C. G., Albert, V. A.|
|Keywords:||Amplification, Eastern Asia, Evolution, Intercontinental Biogeography, Multiple Sequence Alignment, Noncoding Chloroplast Dna, Origin, Regions, Subtribe Melittidinae Labiatae, Systematic Implications|
The five mint genera Brazoria, Macbridea, Physostegia, Synandra and Warnockia (Lamioideae: Lamiaceae) are all North American endemics. Together with the monotypic European genus Melittis and the Asian genus Chelonopsis, these taxa have been classified as subtribe Melittidinae. Previous morphological studies have failed to uncover synapomorphic characters for this group. We sequenced the plastid trnL-trnF region and trnS-trnG spacer and the nuclear ribosomal 5S non-transcribed spacer (5S-NTS) to assess phylogenetic relationships within Melittidinae. Standard parsimony and direct optimization (POY) analyses show Melittis, the type genus of the subtribe, as sister to Stachys. Thus, the monophyly of subtribe Melittidinae is not supported either by molecular or morphological data. However, the North American endemics form a monophyletic group that can be recognized as the recircumscribed tribe Synandreae. The molecular relationships among these genera are corroborated by both morphological and cytological data. The expected close relationship between the south-central endemics Warnockia and Brazoria and their sister relationship to the widespread genus Physostegia is confirmed. Nevertheless, most of the North American endemics are restricted to the south-east of the continent. Dispersal westwards and northwards is correlated with an increase in chromosome numbers. No specific Eurasian origin (i.e., transatlantic or transpacific) can be determined, but Synandreae are clearly distinct from the large Stachys clade, and therefore represent a separate migration into North America. (C) The Willi Hennig Society 2007.