Bio-fermentation of modified flavonoids: an example of in vivo diversification of secondary metabolites

Publication Type:Journal Article
Year of Publication:2004
Authors:M. G. Willits, Giovanni, M. {\"ıté, Prata, R. T. N., Kramer, C. M., De Luca, V., Steffens, J. C., Graser, G.
Date Published:Jan
Keywords:Amino Acid Sequence, Arabidopsis, Cloning: Molecular, Consensus Sequence, Escherichia coli, Fermentation, Flavonoids, Glucosyltransferases, Mentha piperita, Methyltransferases, Molecular Sequence Data, Onions, Phylogeny, Recombinant Proteins, Sequence Alignment, Sequence Homology: Amino Acid, Stereoisomerism, Substrate Specificity

A bio-fermentation technique was used for the in vivo diversification of flavonoid structures based on expression in Escherichia coli of six O-methyltransferases (OMTs) from Mentha x piperita and one O-glucosyltransferase (GT) each from Arabidopsis thaliana and Allium cepa. Enzymes were shown to be regio-specific in in vitro experiments and modified a broad range of flavonoid substrates at various positions. Using the flavonol quercetin as a model substrate, we show that the product spectrum produced with the in vivo approach is identical to that found in vitro. Additionally, using mixed cultures of E. coli expressing different classes of modifying genes (OMTs and GTs), the production of polymethylated flavonoid glucosides was observed. This report demonstrates the potential to increase the structural diversity of plant secondary metabolites using a multi-enzyme, bio-fermentation approach.

Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith