T. philippinensis is found in the Philippines on Luzon Island and Iling Island. On Luzon Island it is found in Lobo and San Juan municipalities, Batangas Province. On Iling Island it is found in Katayungan and Baclayon barangays, Occidental Mindoro.
The species is found in coastal to lowland limestone forest. T. philippinensis tends to dominate the semi-deciduous forests and occurs in association with Terminalia polyalthia. Other associated species are Vitex parviflora, Tamarindus indicus, Mangifera indica, Ceiba pentandra, Syzygium sp., Parkia roxburghii, and Ficus sp.
Madulid, D.A. & Agoo, E.M.G.(IUCN SSC Philippine Plant Red List Authority)
The species is found in only two localities: Iling Island and Luzon Island. Within Luzon Island, the habitat is very fragmented and highly threatened by on-going infrastructure development. On Iling Island, the population is composed of less than 100 individuals. None of these areas are protected by legislation. Given the small and very fragmented extent of occurrence (<100 km) and the continuing decline in area of occupancy and extent of habitat due to agricultural and urban expansion and direct exploitation of the species (immature trees are favoured for pole production thus affecting the future continued survival of the species), the Philippine Teak is listed as Critically Endangered under criterion B.
Based on molecular evidence, there are two subpopulations: Iling Island subpopulation and Luzon Island subpopulation. The Iling Island subpopulation may be composed of less than 100 individuals. The species is more abundant in Batangas, Luzon Island.
The habitat sites of T. philippinensis on Luzon Island are mostly in privately owned land. These are presently being developed as tourist resorts and residential areas. In San Juan, part of the forest has been opened up for a road construction project. On the lower hillsides, the forest is also being converted to fruit tree orchards.
A conservation programme is needed to re-establish a stable natural population of T. philippinensis in its known habitat. A rapid assessment of the species and long-term ecological research is required to determine the physical and biological characteristics of the habitat, coupled with a recovery and management programme, public education, community consultation and resource stewardship, and policy initiatives. As part of the Global Trees Campaign, Fauna and Flora Iinternational (FFI) has funded a recovery programme for Philippine Teak, including all the above elements, led by the Philippine National Museum in Manila. The programme includes meetings with local stakeholders to integrate their concerns into the activities, and work on effective propagation of the tree for replanting. Work has been conducted in local schools to raise awareness of the plight of this rare tree. The programme involves local and regional representatives of the government Department of the Environment and Natural Resources, schools and universities in research, project implementation and monitoring. Attempts are being made to encourage the formulation of local policies for the recovery of the species.