Trees, shrubs or annual or perennial herbs, usually with square stems. Stipules 0. Leaves opposite or whorled, rarely alternate (e.g. Aeollanthus subacaulis), usually gland-dotted and aromatic. Infl. cymose, borne in the axils of opposite bracts, usually much condensed so that the two opposite cymes form a whorl-like infl. (referred to as a whorl in this account); rarely the flowers are solitary in the axil of each bract. The whorls are often close together so that they form spikes or heads. Flowers hypogynous, zygomorphic, usually 2-lipped, bisexual (unisexual in Tetradenia). Bracts present. Calyx usually 5-toothed, often 2-lipped. Corolla gamopetalous, basically 5-lobed but often 2-lipped with the 2 upper lobes and the 3 lower lobes united. Stamens rarely 2, usually 4. Ovary superior, 4-locular; style often 2-lobed, usually gynobasic. Fruit consisting of 4 dry, 1-seeded nutlets.
Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats Specimen Records:5531 Specimens with Sequences:6413 Specimens with Barcodes:4147 Species:1513 Species With Barcodes:1458 Public Records:3729 Public Species:1263 Public BINs:0
The family has a cosmopolitan distribution. The enlarged Lamiaceae contains about 236 genera and has been stated to contain 6,900 to 7,200species, but the World Checklist lists 7,534. The largest genera are Salvia (900), Scutellaria (360), Stachys (300), Plectranthus (300), Hyptis (280), Teucrium (250), Vitex (250), Thymus (220), and Nepeta (200).Clerodendrum was once a genus of over 400 species, but by 2010, it had been narrowed to about 150.
The plants are frequently aromatic in all parts and include many widely used culinary herbs, such as basil, mint, rosemary, sage, savory, marjoram, oregano, hyssop, thyme, lavender, and perilla. Some are shrubs, trees (such as teak), or, rarely, vines. Many members of the family are widely cultivated, owing not only to their aromatic qualities but also their ease of cultivation: these plants are among the easiest plants to propagate by stem cuttings. Besides those grown for their edible leaves, some are grown for decorative foliage, such as coleus. Others are grown for food purposes, but seeds are utilized instead of leaves, such as with Salvia hispanica (chia).
The original family name is Labiatae, so given because the flowers typically have petals fused into an upper lip and a lower lip (labia in Latin). The flowers are bilaterally symmetrical with 5 united petals, 5 united sepals. They are usually bisexual and verticillastrate (a flower cluster that looks like a whorl of flowers but actually consists of two crowded clusters). Although this is still considered an acceptable alternative name, most botanists now use the name "Lamiaceae" in referring to this family. The leaves emerge oppositely, each pair at right angles to the previous one (called decussate) or whorled. The stems are frequently square in cross section, but this is not found in all members of the family, and is sometimes found in other plant families.
The last revision of the entire family was published in 2004. It described and provided keys to 236 genera. These are marked with an asterisk in the list below. A few genera have been established or resurrected since 2004. These are marked with a plus sign. The remaining genera in the list are mostly of historical interest only and are from a source that includes such genera without explanation. Few of these are recognized in modern treatments of the family. Adelosa is a nomen dubium. No specimen exists and no one knows what Carl Ludwig Blume described as Adelosa in 1850.
The circumscription of several genera has changed since 2004. Tsoongia, Paravitex, and Viticipremna have been sunk into synonymy with Vitex.Huxleya has been sunk into Volkameria.Kalaharia, Volkameria, Ovieda, and Tetraclea have been segregated from a formerly polyphyleticClerodendrum.Rydingia has been separated from Leucas. The remaining Leucas is paraphyletic over four other genera.
In 2004, Lamiaceae were divided into seven subfamilies with ten genera not placed in any of the subfamilies. The unplaced genera are: Tectona, Callicarpa, Hymenopyramis, Petraeovitex, Peronema, Garrettia, Cymaria, Acrymia, Holocheila, and Ombrocharis. The subfamilies are Symphorematoideae, Viticoideae, Ajugoideae, Prostantheroideae, Nepetoideae, Scutellarioideae, and Lamioideae. The subfamily Viticoideae is probably not monophyletic. Prostantheroideae and Nepetoideae are divided into tribes. These are shown in the phylogenetic tree below.
^ abcdefghRaymond M. Harley, Sandy Atkins, Andrey L. Budantsev, Philip D. Cantino, Barry J. Conn, Renée J. Grayer, Madeline M. Harley, Rogier P.J. de Kok, Tatyana V. Krestovskaja, Ramón Morales, Alan J. Paton, and P. Olof Ryding. 2004. "Labiatae" pages 167-275. In: Klaus Kubitzki (editor) and Joachim W. Kadereit (volume editor). The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants volume VII. Springer-Verlag: Berlin; Heidelberg, Germany. ISBN 978-3-540-40593-1
^Cantino, P.D., Harley, R.M. & Wagstaff, S.J. 1992. Genera of Labiatae: status and classification. Pp. 511-522. In: Raymond M. Harley and Tom Reynolds (editors). Advances in Labiate Science. Richmond, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
^ abWagstaff, Steven J.; Hickerson, Laura; Spangler, Russ; Reeves, Patrick A.; Olmstead, Richard G. (1998). "Phylogeny in Labiatae s.l., inferred from cpDNA sequences". Plant Systematics and Evolution 209 (3–4): 265–274. doi:10.1007/bf00985232.
^ abHeywood, Vernon H.; Brummitt, Richard K.; Seberg, Ole; Culham, Alastair. Flowering Plant Families of the World. Ontario, Canada: Firefly Books. ISBN978-1-55407-206-4.
^ abcdYuan, Yao-Wu; Mabberley, David J.; Steane, Dorothy A.; Olmstead, Richard G. (2010). "Further disintegration and redefinition of Clerodendrum (Lamiaceae): Implications for the understanding of the evolution of an intriguing breeding strategy". Taxon 59 (1): 125–133.
^"List of genera in Lamiaceae". In: "Lamiaceae". In: "List of families". In: "Families and genera in GRIN. (see External links below)
^List of Genera in Lamiaceae. At: Vascular Plant Families and Genera. At: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. At: Electronic Plant Information Center. At: Website of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (see External Links below).
^ abcBramley, Gemma L.C.; Forest, Félix; Rogier (2009). "Troublesome tropical mints: re-examining generic limits of Vitex and relations (Lamiaceae) in South East Asia". Taxon 58 (2): 500–510.
^Scheen, Anne-Cathrine; Albert, Victor A. (2007). "Nomenclatural and taxonomic changes within the Leucas clade (Lamioideae; Lamiaceae)".". Systematics and Geography of Plants 77 (2): 229–238.
^Scheen, Anne-Cathrine; Albert, Victor A. (2009). "Molecular Phylogenetics of the Leucas Group (Lamioideae; Lamiaceae)".". Systematic Botany 34 (1): 173–181. doi:10.1600/036364409787602366.
^Zhong, Jin-Shun; Li, Jie; Li, Lang; Conran, John G.; Hsi-wen, Li (2010). "Phylogeny of Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth.) Spach (Lamiaceae) and Related Genera Inferred from Nuclear Ribosomal ITS, trnL-trnF Region, and rps16 Intron Sequences and Morphology". Systematic Botany 35 (1): 207–219. doi:10.1600/036364410790862614.
^Walker, Jay B.; Sytsma, Kenneth J. (2007). "Staminal Evolution in the Genus Salvia (Lamiaceae): Molecular Phylogenetic Evidence for Multiple Origins of the Staminal Lever". Annals of Botany 100 (2): 375–391. doi:10.1093/aob/mcl176.
^Ryding, P. Olof (2010). "Pericarp structure and phylogeny of tribe Mentheae (Lamiaceae)".". Plant Systematics and Evolution 285 (3-4): 165–175. doi:10.1007/s00606-010-0270-9.